- (1) The stringent regime of secrecy implemented by ECP signaled the voters to cross party lines without divulging their affiliations to their party heads. This led to their wholescale defections. The regime threatened action through agencies.
- (2) Signal by DoN godfathers to declare all PMLN candidates to be independents.
Hence, Constitution does not permit NA voters to cross party lines during sensitive votes such as no confidence vote or budget vote to curtail horsetrading. To curtail horsetrading practice in Senate elections, voting should also have been by the show of hands as per the spirit of constitution.