Experiments to Control Democracy in Pakistan

مرض بڑھتا گیا جوں جوں دوا کی
Pakistan is so fond of changing the system of governance: We have changed the system every few years since 1947, we have experimented with political engineering of the system more times than any other country in the world. Here is a brief overview of our experiments of such engineering:

  • 1947-50: Governor-General as Chief Executive, under Queen/monarch of UK.
  • 1950-55: Powerless PM + powerful Governor-General, under Queen/monarch of UK. 
  • 1956-58: Republican Constitution with President as Chief Executive with musical chairs of 5 rubber stamp PMs
  • 1958-62: 1956 constitution abrogated, Martial Law with COAS as President and CMLA.
  • 1962-69: Ayub’s BD constitution. President all-powerful, BDs just a showpiece.
  • 1969-71: President, COAS as CMLA. Discarding of BD system constitution. Experiment with first direct elections. Power not transferred to the winner, followed by East Pakistan dismemberment.
  • 1971-73: World’s first Civil Martial Law Administrator and President.
  • 1973-77: Parliamentary democracy constitution with PM as chief executive, President as a rubber stamp.
  • 1977-81: Martial Law with COAS as CMLA and President. 1973 constitution suspended.
  • 1981-85: COAS as CMLA and President + appointed Majlis e Shura, rubber stamp
  • 1985-88: COAS as President, rigged referendum-based Non-party elections and parliament with Rubber stamp PM, 1973 constitution restored with 8th Amendment giving President discretionary powers to fire PM under 58-2b.
  • 1988-99: Party-based Elections and parliament with 4 alternating PMs with around 2.5 years tenure removed at the discretion of President under 58-2b.
  • 1999-2002: COAS as Chief Executive/CMLA and all-powerful President. 1973 Constitution with suspended clauses.
  • 2002-2008: COAS as President with PMs as rubber stamp, constitution restored with 58-2b, controlled party elections. 
  • 2008-2012: Political President powerful with PM as a rubber stamp.
  • 2012-2017: 18th Amendment, repeal of 58-2b, devolution of powers to PM and provinces. Judicial activism of CJP who could remove PMs on frivolous grounds of contempt using 60-1. 
  • 2017-present: Hybrid regime Selector+selected, with SC getting more powerful than the president. Started with SC using 60-1f to remove PM.
Systems are designed to constrain the rulers. In pakistan, rulers constrain the system to fulfill their designs.

پاکستان میں ٹوٹل صدارتی نظام کے 58 سال: 
اعلانیہ صدارتی نظام کے 38 سال:
1956-1973: اسکندر مرزا، ایوب، یحییٰ، بھٹو
1977-1988: ضیاء 
1999-2008: مش
غیر اعلانیہ صدارتی نظام کے مزید 20 سال: جہاں گورنر جنرل یا صدر مرضی سے وزیراعظم کو رکھتا اور نکالتا ہے
1947-1956: گورنر جنرلز: جناح، ناظم الدین، غلام محمد، اسکندر مرزا
1988-1999: صدر 58-2b، غلام اسحاق خان، لغاری


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